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Scopes

A scope is a namespace for user-defined types, typedef-ed types, constants and native functions.

There is always a global scope, a scope that represents the source file itself. All enumerations, typedefs and user-defined types declared in the file (and not enclosed by other user-defined types) are said to be defined at the global scope.

// beginning of the file
typedef int MyIntType;

enum MyEnum
{
    // …
};

const MyConstant = 5;

struct MyStruct
{
    // …
};

In the example above, all identifiers, that is, MyIntType, MyEnum, MyConstant and MyStruct are declared in the global scope.

Each user-defined type creates its own scope:

struct A            // A is declared in the global scope and creates its own scope
{
    const B = 10;        // B is declared in scope of structure A
};

Every enclosed scope “sees” all its parent scopes. That is, when name-lookup is performed (for the search of the identifier), first, the most enclosed scope is searched. If the identifier is not found, a parent scope is searched and so on.

This allows an identifier to be overloaded in the enclosed scope:

const MyConstant = 10;
struct A
{
    const MyConstant = 5;
    int array[MyConstant];  // will use MyConstant from the A scope
};

struct B
{
    int array[MyConstant];  // will use MyConstant from the global scope
};

A compiler does not provide a way to reference MyConstant from the global scope from scope A in this example. But once the scope is closed, a global scope is active again (see structure B).

Enumerations are slightly different in a way they use scopes: enumeration declaration does not create a scope but places all enumeration values into the parent scope. See the enumerations section for more information.